While working towards my PhD at the University of Washington, I worked as a research assistant for Professor Beth Kolko in the Central Asia + Information and Communication Technologies (CAICT) project. CAICT was a multi-year investigation of internet and related technology developments in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

This depicts Internet diffusion in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan compared to the US along Roger's Diffusion of Innovations curve. (USA data from the PEW Internet Life project)>


While the Internet was less diffused in Central Asia, Internet users share demographic similarities when compared to non-users (when use is diffused at less than 75%) regardless of time (from 2000-2008) or geographic location (between Central Asia and the U.S.).

This image depicts a commong theme, i.e., the importance of face-to-face social networks and reciprocity in Central Asia. This graphic describes interview finding from Kyrgyzstan 2006 demonstrating a high level of reciprocity



Kolko, B, Putnam, C., Johnson, & E. Rose, (2011). Reflection on research methodologies for ubicomp in developing contexts. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing,15(6), 575-583.

Putnam, C. and Kolko B. (2010). The Social Meaning of ICTs: Patterns of Technology Adoption and Usage in Context. In Proceedings of International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, ICTD 2010, London, UK, December 13-16. (Acceptance rate: 14%) Presented December, 2010.

Anderson, R.E., Brunette, W., Johnson, E., Lustig, C., Poon, A., Putnam, C., Salihbaeva, O., Kolko, B.E., & Borrielllo,G. (2010). Experiences with a Transportation Information System that Uses Only GPS and SMS. In Proceedings of International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, ICTD 2010, London, UK, December 13-16. (Acceptance rate 18%).

Birge, C., Putnam C., Kolko, B. (2010). Online Privacy Perception in Central Asia. In Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, Redmond, WA, USA, July 14-16. (Acceptance rate 30%).

Putnam, C., Johnson, E, Rose, .& Kolko, B. (2009). Adapting User-Centered Design Methods to Design for Diverse Populations. Special HCI4D Issue of Information Technologies and International Development(ITID),5 (4), 51-73.

Walton, R., Putnam, C., Johnson, E.& Kolko, B. (2009). Skills Are Not Binary: Nuances in the Relationship Between ICT Skills and Employability. Special ICT Skills and Employability Issue of Information Technologies and International Development (ITID), 5(2), 1-18.

Putnam, C and Kolko B. (2009). Getting Online but still living offline: the complex relationship of technology adoption and in-person social networks. In Proceedings of Advances in Social Networks and Mining, ASONAM '09, Athens, Greece, July 20-22, 33-40. (Acceptance rate: 18%). Presented July, 2009.

Putnam, C., Rose, E.,Walton, R. & Kolko, B. (2009).Mobile phone users in Kyrgyzstan: A case study of identifying user requirements for diverse users. In Proceedings of IPCC 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 20-23, 2009. (Acceptance rate: 32.6%).

Kolko, B. & Putnam, C.(2009). Computer Games in the Developing World: The Value of Non-Instrumental Engagement with ICTs, or Taking Play Seriously. In Proceedings of International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development, ICTD '09, Doha.Qatar, April 17-19, 2009, 46-55. (Acceptance rate: 18%)